Glossary

This is a general glossary of terms commonly used in entomology and arachnology.

AJAX progress indicator
Search:
(clear)
  • (adjective) Of an organ or member: markedly or unexpectedly short in proportion to the rest of the body
  • Body of the insect, toward the posterior of the thorax.
  • See proleg
  • See Acalyptratae
  • thorn-like projection, typically a single-celled cuticular growth without tormogen (socket) or sensory cells.[1]
  • A chemical employed to kill and control mites and ticks.
  • feeding on mites (also refers to parasitoids of mites).
  • Any secondary gland of the glandular system.
  • Small muscular pumps and the veins that accompany them that pump hemolymph into the wings.
  • Alternative spelling of "acetylcholine".
  • The two rows of hairs or bristles lying one on either side of the mid-line of the thorax of a true fly.
  • The space within which the concentration of a pheromone or other behaviorally active substance is concentrated enough to generate the required response, remembering that like light and sound pheromones become more dilute the further they radiate out from their source.
  • (Hymenoptera) Any member of a group of families that include the familiar stinging ants, bees, and social and hunting wasp.
  • Tapering to a long point.
  • A class of insect growth regulators.
  • Of pupa: the state in which the pupa does not possess movable mandibles, the opposite being decticous.
  • A major cell type of insects that stores fat body and reserves nutrients.
  • (adjective): Along the margin.
  • The sclerotized terminal portion of the male genital tract that is inserted into the female during insemination. Its shape is often important in separating closely related species.
  • Anterior eye row of a spider
  • Summer dormancy, entered into when conditions are unfavourable for active life i.e. it is too hot or too dry.
  • The regular changing of roles of colony members as they get older.
  • A dilated portion of a trachea.
  • The middle of three flap-like outgrowths at the base of the wing in various flies.
  • Muscles along the dorsal diaphragm that may drive circulation.
  • The parthenogenetic winged morph of vividae, specialized for migration.
  • Winged reproductive caste from a social insect colony in its winged form.
  • Winged; having wings.
  • aldrin A synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, toxic to vertebrates. Though its phytotoxicity is low, solvents in some formulations may damage certain crops. cf. the related Dieldrin, Endri
  • Anterior lateral eyes of a spider
  • Feeding on algae.
  • Name given to the thorax and propodeum of 'wasp-waisted' hymenopterans.
  • When individuals other than the parent assist in the caring for that parents offspring. Alloparenting takes many forms, including castes in social insects raising the offspring of reproductives, and slave ant workers feeding the larvae of the slaver species.
  • Two or more forms of a species having essentially separate distributions.
  • When two generations are produced within a life cycle each producing individuals of only one sex, either male first and then female or vice versa.
  • Self-destructive. or potentially self-destructive behavior performed for the benefit of others.
  • A broad lobe at the proximal posterior margin of the wing stalk of Diptera. Also termed the axillary lobe.
  • The fungus cultivated by wood-boring beetles of the family Scolytidae.
  • Anterior median eyes of a spider
  • Hexapods which develop without metamorphosis; namely the Protura, Thysanura, and Collembola.
  • Compound derived from carboxylic acids by replacing the hydroxyl of the -COOH by the amino group, -NH2-.
  • An organic compound containing nitrogen, derived from ammonia, NH3, by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms by as many hydrocarbon radicals.
  • Organic compounds that contain the amino (NH2) group and the carboxyl (COOH) group. Amino acids are the "building stones" of proteins.
  • A colorless alkaline gas, NH3, soluble in water.
  • Pertaining to last abdominal segment which bears the anus.
  • The posterior corner of the wing (same as tornus).
  • A fold in the inner margin of the hindwing.
  • Exposed claspers at the end of the abdomen.
  • Infection with Anaplasma, a genus of Sporozoa that infests red blood cells.
  • A wilt disease of cucurbits caused solely by the feeding of the squash bug, no parasitic microorganism involved.
  • (singula = Androconium) In male butterflies, specialised wing scales (often called scent scales) possessing special glands which produce a chemical attractive to females.
  • Specialised microscopic scales on the wings of male butterflies, believed to be scent scales for attracting the female. Plural: androconia
  • Deficient in blood quantity or quality.
  • Formed in ring-like segments or with ring-like markings.
  • the lower (anterior) portion of the clypeus of insects.
  • The long feelers situated on the head and close to the eyes. They are however not tactile but used for detecting airborne scents and currents.In Papilionoidea the antennae end in bulging tips called clubs.In Hesperioidea they have hooked tips and the club is found just before the tip.In some(...)
  • Touching with the antenna.
  • Bearing antennae, as in "antenniferous tubercle".
  • A segment of an antenna. The term antennomere is used in particular when the segments are fairly uniform, as in filiform antennae, but it also may be used in referring to segments of odd sizes, shapes and functions, such as the scape and pedicel. More specific terms may be used where there are(...)
  • Small cross-veins at the front of the dragonfly or damselfly wing, between the wing base and the nodus.
  • in front of or after the aforementioned structure.
  • feeding on flowers.
  • An association between two or more organisms that is detrimental to one or more of them.
  • A substance antagonistic to the coagulation of blood.
  • The posterior opening of the digestive tract.
  • The anterior corner of the wing.
  • feeding on aphids (and parasitoids of aphids).
  • The first posterior cell in the wing of Diptera. It is the space between the third and fourth longitudinal vein beyond the anterior crossvein (R5).
  • Medicinal use of the honey bee or its products.
  • A crossvein between the radius and cubitus near the base of the wing in certain insects.
  • A small ring of colorIn crayfish, the hourglass pattern on the dorsal surface of the cephalothorax
  • A pad-like median lobe between the tarsal claws.
  • Towards the base of a leg, a palp, or a spinneret, or an outgrowth; nearer the body (opposite of apical). May be used for secondary appendages like apophyses on appendages like the embolus.
  • (Noctuidae) also basal dash — a typically short and broad line at the mid-basal area of the forewing of noctuid moths
  • Region close to the point of attachment to the thorax.
  • Raised area on the wing surface, circular, ovate, or elongated, which is covered with special scent scales or androconia, found in males of some species. Also called sex mark.
  • feeding on moss.
  • A row of curved hairs on metatarsus IV that is used to comb silk from a cribellum.
  • Mainly referring to antennae, but occasionally to other anatomical features such as palps: having a clubbed shape with a relatively long, slender stem, but with an abruptly bulkier, thicker, possibly globular distal head, the capitulum. The term capitate is not strictly distinguished from(...)
  • The head of a capitate structure, such as a capitate antenna, or of a capitate haltere
  • Dorsal plate covering the cephalothorax.
  • a keel-like elevation (or ridge) on the body-wall of an insect.
  • feeding on fruits and seeds.
  • Markings consisting of rings connected together like a chain.
  • The central area surrounded by veins. It can be closed by veins or open.The vein forming the boundary of the cell along the costal margin is known as the subcostal vein q.v.The vein forming the lower boundary towards the dorsum is called the median vein.In the case of butterflies, the cell is(...)
  • Taxonomically important term used in Diptera identification keys. Part of the schema of wing venation. Also called the posterior cubital cell and often called the anal cell. see File:Phytomyzinae wing veins-1.svg
  • Taxonomically important term used in moth description. It is a transverse band in the median area of the wing.
  • (Anatomical feature) the structure defining the neck of the insect.
  • See Seta.
  • patch of sensory bristles.
  • An external spine that has a single point. Etymology: Greek chalasa, a tubercle. cf. scolus, which has multiple points.
  • Jaw; comprises a large basal segment and an apical and readily moveable fang.
  • See Seta.
  • Fine hairs along the edges of the wing.
  • A structure in male insects that is used to hold the female during copulation.
  • Same as clavus.
  • Mainly referring to antennae, but occasionally to other anatomical features such as palps: having a clubbed shape with a relatively long, slender stem, but with a bulkier, thicker distal end, the clava. The term clavate is not strictly distinguished from capitate, but in general, where a(...)
  • specifically, in Noctuidae (moths)- an elongate spot or mark extending from the anterior transverse anterior line through the submedian interspace, toward and sometimes to the posterior transverse line
  • Same as clavus or club
  • The thicker distal end of a clavate anatomical structure such as an antenna. Usually comprising more than one joint. Also called clava, clavola, or clubThe posterior of the portion of the remigium found on insect wings.The oblong sclerite at the base of the inferior margin of the hemelytron in(...)
  • The popular (possibly to be preferred) name for the clavus of a clavate antenna.
  • Spiders: Area between the anterior edge of the carapace and the anterior eyes. Insects: Area between antennal sockets and labrum.
  • feeding on scale insects (and parasitoids of scale insects).
  • An eye consisting of a large number of individual photoreceptor units or ommatidia (ommatidium, singular).Figure 2 d below
  • (largely in Heteroptera and similarly dorsoventrally flattened insects) the edge of the abdomen, containing the connection between the tergite and sternite. May be visible from above in species such as many of the Reduviidae. Plural: connexiva
  • inhabiting feces and consuming mycetes growing inside or cultivating them for feeding.
  • feeding on the excrements of animals.
  • (Anatomical feature) an anterior suture line of the head between the compound eyes, below the median ocellus.
  • The leading edge of the wing.
  • Taxonomically important term used in Diptera identification keys. Part of the schema of wing venation. weakenings of the costa (one to three in number). They are flexing points for the wings during flight
  • A fold in the leading edge of the forewing of Lepidoptera, containing androconia.
  • first leg segment, between body and trochanter.
  • A general term for a structure by which an object hangs (from Greek language kremastos, meaning "hung up"); for example in entomology: in some Lepidoptera, including most butterflies, the pupa attaches to a surface by the cremaster, a structure at the tip of the pupal abdomen. The cremaster is(...)
  • Adjective = scalloped. Describes the outer edge of a wing that is convex at the end of each vein and concave in between.
  • Noun = wedge. Particularly in mirid bugs, a wedge-shaped section of the hemelytra (forewings), located at the apex of the thick, leathery part of the wings.
  • Adult insect that shed or lost its wings.
  • Functional mandibles present in pupal state.
  • feeding on trees.
  • As for crenulate but with the projections at the end of each wing being toothlike.
  • feeding on ground remains of plants and animals.
  • dieldrin A synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, toxic to vertebrates. cf. the related Aldrin, End
  • The central band passing through the cell.
  • In damselflies (Zygoptera) a basal quadrangular cell in the wing venation, which is delimited by veins MA (anterior side), MP (posterior side), MAb (distal side) and the arculus (basal side).
  • Towards the terminal segment of a leg, a palp, or a spinneret, away from the body (opposite of basal).
  • The trailing edge or hind-margin of the wing, extending from the base to the tornus. Dorsal alternately, also refers to the back, i.e. the upper part of the body, from above.
  • (Anatomical feature) having exterior mouthparts, or exposed. A defining feature of insects.
  • (Anatomical feature) the modified, hardened forewing of certain insect orders, notably beetles (Coleoptera) and some of the true bugs (Hemiptera).
  • (Anatomical feature) Describing a margin, such as the edge of an eye or sclerite, where the outline includes a concave section as if a part of the region had been "cut out" or displaced. It might take the form of a notch, or a rounded or possibly quadrate hollow, such as where a compound eye(...)
  • (Anatomical feature) either a bristle-like or pad-like structure between the tarsal claws of various insects, notably Diptera.
  • the immuno response by plasmatocytes to the presence of parasitoid egg or larvae which results in the formation of a multilayered capsule that causes the parasitoid to sufficate or starve.
  • Endrin A synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, toxic to vertebrates. Though its phytotoxicity is low, solvents in some formulations may damage certain crops. cf. the related Dieldrin, Aldri
  • feeding on dead arthropods.
  • feeding on other insects.
  • (Anatomical feature) the top of the anterior structure of the head, or forehead.
  • (Anatomical feature) a plate or projection dorsal to the anus in certain insects, generally on abdominal segment X or XI. For example in Archaeognatha, Zygentoma and Ephemeroptera, it takes the form of a long, rearwardly directed caudal filament resembling the two cerci that flank it. In the(...)
  • The palpi when vertical, i.e. the axis of the palpi is at right angles to the axis of the body.
  • Pupae with their legs and other appendages free and extended.
  • Spots or other patterns resembling vertebrate eyes on the skin, such as on larvae of some Sphingidae or the wings of moths such as many Saturniidae. Such eyespots have no visual function, but act variously to misdirect or discourage attacks from predators.Simple eyes such as ocelli or stemmata
  • the area between the base of antennae, oral margin, eyes and cheeks (gena).
  • A color pattern with a broad band. Plural: fasciae
  • third leg segment, between trochanter and tibia.
  • an antennomere comprising part of the flagellum.
  • the part of the antenna distal to the pedicel composed of one or more segments, called flagellomeres.
  • (Anatomical feature) the posterior opening of the head capsule, covered by the cervix.
  • (Anatomical feature) the pair of wings of a four-winged insect closest to the head.
  • (Anatomical feature) The frontal area of an insect's head. It covers the upper part of the face above the clypeus and below and between the antennae. It supports the pharyngeal dilator muscles and usually bears an ocellus.
  • (Anatomical feature) suture lines that meet with the coroanl sutures to form an inverted Y.
  • (Anatomical feature) the area below the compound eyes, the insect equivalent to human cheeks.
  • Elbowed. From the Latin for a bended knee, referring to an organ of a type not always expected to be kinked, but having a definite angular bend or hinge. In entomology the term typically refers to an elbowed antenna. For instance, many species of Hemiptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera have(...)
  • a strand of silk used to prop up the pupa. Found especially in the Papilionidae.
  • smooth, without hairs or scales.
  • ventral head sclerite which supports the submentum
  • feeding on worms classified with helminths (including parasitoids of helminths).
  • the interior of the insects anatomy, including all organs and hemocyte.
  • a fluid in the circulatory system of insects containing nutrients, fat, water, etc.
  • feeding on blood.
  • feeding on herbaceous plants.
  • (Anatomical feature) the pair of wings of a four-winged insect farthest from the head.
  • transparent, like glass.
  • mode of life: living in the thin film of water on wet rocks.
  • having mouthparts that are ventrad of a vertically oriented head, "pointing downwards", or having an "under bit", instead of pointing backwards or forwards.
  • Mouthpart. A tonguelike lobe on the floor of the mouth.
  • a form of parasitism where the parasitoid paralyzes or leaves the host unable to continue development at oviposition.
  • (plural is usually imagines) The final, or adult, stage in metamorphosis.
  • localised thickening of a member such as an antenna or leg.
  • The region between adjacent veins.
  • Phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear gradually to change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes.
  • Old term used usually to indicate a sprinkling of scales interspersed among scales typically of a different color.
  • Isodrin A synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, toxic to vertebrates. Though its phytotoxicity is low, solvents in some formulations may damage certain crops. cf. the related Dieldrin, A
  • feeding on cornified tissues and hair of animals.
  • A form of parasitoidy where the parasitoid lives inside the host while allowing it to live after oviposition.
  • Mouthpart forming the lower lip. Bears the labial palps.
  • (Anatomical feature) the anterior structure below the clypeus covering some of the mouthparts, sometimes called the "upper lip".
  • feeding on lichens.
  • (Anatomical feature) the suture lines where the integument will split to allow for molting or autotomy.
  • A body area or marking roughly in the shape of a crescent.
  • large bristles and scales.[3]
  • Having long or large elytra, as long, or longer than the abdomen.
  • A relatively long hair or bristle. Plural: metasetae
  • feeding on mollusks (and parasitoids of mollusks).
  • Mouthpart. The maxillae are paired and arranged behind the mandibles. May bear palps.
  • a small triangular opaque region at the base of the hindwing in some dragonflies.
  • the middle segment of the thorax, between the prothorax and the metathorax.
  • small metallic-looking spots commonly found on the wings of Riodinidae.
  • The second last segment of the leg.
  • The third and last segment of the thorax after the mesothorax.
  • Having short elytra, shorter than the abdomen.
  • feeding on myxomycetes slime molds.
  • feeding on fungus.
  • Infestation of fly larvae on or in a vertebrate host.
  • consuming of dead animals and their remains.
  • Older term for vein. adnervural refers to instance lines running adjacent and alongside the veins.
  • (of Odonata ) A prominent cross-vein near the center of the leading edge of a wing. Also called "node".
  • Appendages fused or glued to the body.
  • (Anatomical feature) the structure that defines the occiput.
  • (Anatomical feature) the region posterior to the vertex on the head.
  • (Anatomical feature) the structure of the head containing the ocelli.
  • A woodlouse shaped, flattened platyform appearance of a larva.[4]
  • feeding on eggs.
  • with receding mouthparts, or having mouthparts that slope backward or face backward.
  • Posterior part of the body in some arthropods, behind the prosoma.
  • a marking placed between the reniform stigma and the thorax, usually circular in shape.
  • fleshy structure on some larvae, often discharging odorous chemicals.
  • the act of laying eggs.
  • structure by which many insects place their eggs, sometimes by piercing or slitting the host or substrate in which she lays the eggs. The structure may be tubular and may have valves.
  • if part of the ovipositor is visible when not in action, then the basal visible portion, typically tubular, is the oviscape. For examples, see females of many Tephritidae and Pyrgotidae (cf scape).
  • a stink gland or repugnatorial gland, from which an animal such as an insect or Myriapod may release a foul-smelling liquid or gas for defence
  • the opening of an ozadene, a stink gland or repugnatorial gland
  • feeding on pollen.
  • parasite that develops attached to or within a host organism in a relationship which ultimately kills the host.
  • A segment of the palp or leg (refer to leg segments and palp segments). Plural: patellae
  • the second segment ( antennomere) of the antenna.
  • Stalk or “waist” joining the cephalothorax and abdomen.
  • comparatively large processes that originate from below the head and curve forward in front of the face that sometimes appear like a beak. lp on the figure right.
  • Posterior eye row of a spider
  • feeding on phloem.[5][6][7]
  • feeding on leaves.
  • feeding on plants.
  • Posterior lateral eyes of a spider
  • A sclerotised region on the lateral part of an insect segment, bearing the spiracle, and separating and connecting the tergite and the sternite (compare: pulmonarium).
  • Posterior median eyes of a spider
  • feeding on pollen.
  • of organs extended horizontally anterior to the head. In such organs the axis of the organs is parallel to the axis of the body.
  • the upper (proximal) portion of the clypeus of insects.
  • The area, or band, of the wing between the discal area and the marginal area.
  • in a position behind or below the aforementioned.
  • (Anatomical feature) the structure posterior to the occipital suture, surrounding foramen magnum or occipital magnum.
  • tubular feeding and sucking organ.
  • Directed or leaning forward, such as in bristles in particular locations of insects' heads.
  • Eye arrangement in which the lateral eyes are situated to the front of the median eyes; in the example here, the AER is procurved as the ALE are in a more forward position than the AME.
  • having mouth parts extended forward of the head, in contrast to opisthognathous and hypognathous.
  • fleshy leg like structures arising from the abdominal segments of caterpillars. These prolegs have crochets or curved hooks.
  • The first segment on the thorax anterior to the mesothorax.
  • The prominent cell, usually opaque and coloured, near the tip of each wing of the Odonata, on the anterior margin; also, more loosely, called stigma. Plural: pterostigmata
  • The meso- and metathorax of winged insects, that carries the two pairs of wings.
  • A membranous instead of a sclerotised connection or pleurite between the abdominal tergites and sternites of certain groups of insects; in such species the pulmonaria bear the spiracles. The term also refers to an abdomen in which the connection between the tergal and sternal sclerites takes(...)
  • Eye arrangement in which the lateral eyes are situated to the back of the median eyes in the top or front view; in this example, the PER is recurved as the PLE are in a more backward position than the PME.
  • an oval or kidney-shaped mark on the forewing at the disc (Lepidoptera)[8]
  • (generally in combination as in: "repugnatorial glands"): defensive, or "fighting back", in particular as applied to an ozadene, a gland that can release irritant, poisonous, alarming or distasteful fluids or gases when an organism is under threat. Examples of repugnatorial glands include the(...)
  • feeding on rhizomes.
  • adapted for leaping or jumping.
  • inhabiting decaying matter and consuming mycetes growing inside or cultivating them for feeding.
  • feeding on decaying organic matter.
  • feeding on dead bodies of vertebrates.
  • the proximal segment ( antennomere) of the antenna.
  • feeding on ground remains of plants and animals.
  • An external spine having multiple points. Etymology: Greek skolos, a prickle. cf. chalaza. plural: scoli
  • Latin term meaning "in the sense of".
  • The process of animals accumulating poisonous compounds from the food they are eating in order to become poisonous themselves for their predators. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid sequestration refers to the sequestration of one such class of poisonous compounds.
  • A stiff chitinous or sclerotised hair or bristle. Also chaeta, cheta
  • Flattened or scale-like hairs; some are thickened. Plural: setae
  • being like or having the nature of a seta or of setaesetose
  • bearing, or covered in setae.
  • Diminutive of seta. A small chitinous hair or bristle.
  • bearing, or covered in setulae.
  • see central shade
  • Respiratory openings on the thorax and abdomen that allow air to enter the trachea.
  • feeding on mycet spores.
  • Prominent cells on the forewings of some moths. Their size, shape and colour can be useful in identifying some species. Also the prominent cell, usually opaque and coloured, near the tip of each wing of the Odonata, on the anterior margin; also called pterostigma. Plural: stigmata
  • Patterns with thin lines.
  • Taxonomically important term used in Diptera identification keys. Part of the schema of wing venation. The second longitudinal wing vein, posterior to the costa. It may reach the costa, fade before the costa or join R1 before it reaches the costa. see commons:File:Neminidae_wing_veins.svg (=(...)
  • Approximately but not exactly equal.
  • (Anatomical feature) suture lines below the gena.
  • a shared ancestral ("primitive") character state that cannot be used to demonstrate the monophyly of a group.
  • a shared homologous and derived character state (evolutionary novelty) that demonstrates the monophyly of a group (clade).
  • a form of reproduction in which the female continues to produce and to mature eggs throughout its life cycle.
  • fifth (last) leg segment, the part that touches the walking surface. Plural: tarsi
  • The edge of the wing most distant from the body.
  • Along the margin.
  • The part of the body that lies between the head and the abdomen. It has three parts - prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax.
  • The tibia is the fourth (as counted from the body of the insect - coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia, tarsus, claw/metatarsus) segment in the leg of an insect.
  • a pubescence consisting of soft, entangled hairs pressed close to the surface of the integument.
  • The posterior corner of the wing.
  • second leg segment, between coxa and femur.
  • The mouthparts of Arthropoda such as insects; typically labrum, mandible, maxilla, labium.
  • The singular form of trophi (rarely used).
  • hook-like, as in the mouthparts of many fly larvae. (also uncinate)
  • hook-like, as in the mouthparts of many fly larvae. (also uncate)
  • the claws at the tip of most insect pretarsi. Plural: ungues
  • a segment or part of the abdomen in insects.
  • paired "horns" at the posterior tip of the abdomen of larvae. Plural: urogomphi
  • plate on the dorsal (upper) surface of an abdominal segment in insects.
  • One of several appendages that combine to form the ovipositor of a typical female insect.
  • In female Heteroptera valvifers comprise four blades, one pair on each of abdominal segments 8 and 9. They articulate with the paratergites and bear their corresponding valvulae.
  • One of four blades in a female Hemipteran with a laciniate type of ovipositor, that combine to form the ovipositing mechanism.
  • Hollow structures formed from the coupling of the upper and lower walls of the wing. They provide both rigidity and flexibility to the wing. (See also Comstock-Needham system.)
  • (Anatomical feature) The apex of the head, usually containing ocelli.
  • covered with numerous thick-set, slender projections resembling short hairs.
  • Insects within social colonies (bees, wasps, ants, and termites) that usually do not reproduce and instead perform most of the colony's tasks.
  • inhabiting wood and consuming mycetes growing in wood or cultivating them for feeding.
  • feeding on wood.
  • feeding on fungus found on other animals.
  • feeding on animals, and/or animal matter.

Like the content here? Get notified for new posts, stories, workshops and book launches! Your email will never be shared with others.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0